The term “pseudo’’ refers to ‘’lying, false, fake, simulation, imitation or spurious.’’ In ophthalmological literature, there are many diseases/conditions/signs/phenomena that are considered as “pseudo.” A literature search was conducted on the Medical Subject Headings website, and the keywords that were searched in the title and abstract were as follows: (pseudo-), (fake), (false), (mimicker), (simulator), (masquerade), AND (condition) AND(causes) AND (ophthalmology)OR (eye) OR (ocular) OR (ophthalmic) OR (cornea) OR (retina) OR (strabismus) OR (glaucoma). The search was restricted to English language. The major databases such as PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar, OVID, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library were searched or investigated for information. The objective of this review is to summarize common ‘‘pseudo’’ conditions in ophthalmology and their respective common causes. We believe that the knowledge of these pseudo-conditions will provide significant benefits in the differential diagnosis of various ophthalmic disorders.Keywords: Condition, fake, false, mimicker, masquerade, ophthalmology, pseudo, simulator.