INTRODUCTION: This study is an analysis of the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) in children who have type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) without diabetic retinopathy.
METHODS: In all, 36 right eyes of 36 patients with T1D and 36 right eyes of sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were included in this prospective study. SFCT and GCC measurements were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Correlations between SCFT, GCC and duration of T1D, glycated hemoglobin, and age were also investigated.
RESULTS: The mean SFCT was 342.1±42.3 µm in the T1D group and 354±70.8 µm in the control group (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the GCC superior and inferior retina values. The average GCC was thinner in the T1D group (T1D group: 88.11±14.93 µm, control group: 103.39±15.65 µm; p=0.005). The mean central retinal thickness (CRT) was decreased in the T1D group (T1D group: 248.1±16.5 µm, control group: 262.1±18.3 µm; p=0.021).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The mean SFCT was not significantly different in diabetic children compared with healthy eyes. The CRT and average GCC thickness were lower in children with T1D. SD-OCT can reveal neurodegenerative changes that may occur before vascular changes in diabetic children.