INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess initial changes in blood flow parameters of the ophthalmic artery (OA) in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM).
METHODS: Sixty-three subjects were included in this prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Thirty-one (49.2%) patients with type 1 DM without diabetic retinopathy formed the DM group. The control group comprised 32 (50.8%) healthy subjects. The OA of all of the patients was examined with Doppler ultrasonography. The main outcomes were peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), pulsatility index (PI), and resistivity index (RI) measurements.
RESULTS: The mean age at onset of type 1 DM was 10.7±2.0 years and the mean duration was 11.4±11.0 months. The mean PSV and EDV outcomes in both eyes were significantly higher in the control group than in the DM group, whereas, the mean PI and RI outcomes in both eyes were significantly higher in the DM group (p<0.05). A mean RI of ≥0.75 indicated vascular hemodynamic changes associated with type 1 DM with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 65% (area under the curve: 0.702; p=0.007). A mean PI of ≥1.69 predicted vascular hemodynamic changes associated with type 1 DM with a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 71% (area under the curve: 0.742; p=0.001).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results of this study revealed that disturbances in ocular hemodynamics might be present as early as the first year after a type 1 DM diagnosis. Changes in ocular hemodynamic parameters could be used to predict or screen for the development of vascular changes.