INTRODUCTION: This study aims to compare the efficacy of intravitreal injection of aflibercept (IVA), ranibizumab (IVR) and dexamethasone implant (DEX IMP) for the treatment of macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).
METHODS: In this retrospective and comparative study, 57 eyes of 57 patients with ME after BRVO were studied. Patients were diveded into three groups according to treatment regimen as follows: 2 mg IVA (group 1, n=18), 0,5 mg IVR (group 2, n=20) and 0,7 mg Dex imp (group 3, n=19). Group 1 and group 2 were treated with three monthly anti-VEGF treatment followed by pro re nata (PRN) regimen, and group 3 was treated with 0,7 mg dexamethasone dose followed by another injection based on patients' data. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were noted at baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months.
RESULTS: All groups were similar concerning age, gender, duration of symptoms, initial CMT and BCVA (p>0.05). Mean number of injections were 3,85±0.74 in group 1, 3,85±0,87 in group 2 and 1,75±0,44 in group 3. All the groups decreased CMT and increased BCVA for six months. There was not a statistically significant difference between groups. Concerning side effects, one person in group 1 and 2, four people in group 3 increased IOP, but all of them controlled IOP with anti-glaucomatous drugs. One patient in group 1, two in group 2, four in group three patients had cataract progression.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: All three drugs have similar results in patients with ME secondary to BRVO at a six-month follow-up. Compared to anti-VEGF drugs, dex imp has side effects as increased IOP and cataract progression, but it has higher BCVA at all months in the treatment of ME after BRVO.